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Airmen at Sheppard Air Force Base in Texas celebrate Juneteenth in 2021, the first year it was a federal holiday. Since then, the holiday has grown in popularity, but it is still not widely observed.

It took more than two years for news of the Emancipation Proclamation to reach the last enslaved people in Texas – and though it may take as long to win wide acceptance for the new federal holiday, supporters say they intend to keep raising awareness. Read more»

A legal scholar speaks about her family’s history and how she hopes Juneteenth - long celebrated by millions of Black Americans and established as a federal holiday last year by President Joe Biden - will shape discussions about the nation’s legacy of slavery. Read more»

Frederick Douglass described how his feelings of despair were countered by his hope of becoming free.

Research shows that any attempt to address inequitable treatment of Black Americans should also account for the ways in which racial discrimination has impacted mental health outcomes among this particular population. Read more»

How can a teacher explain that the United States was not 'fundamentally racist,' yet at the time of its founding, race-based slavery was legal and stayed that way until after the Civil War?

Problems emerge in education when laws seek to control what teachers can say about whether a state or a nation itself was racist from inception, or whether the U.S. or any states sought to promote white supremacy through their laws. Read more»

Fireworks over Lincoln Park in Denver, CO.

Many of the ideas Americans may think they know about the Declaration of Independence are wrong, and historian Woody Holton offers six surprising facts about the nation’s founding document – including that it failed to achieve its most immediate goal and that its meaning has changed from the founding to today. Read more»

The holiday commemorates the day in 1865 that Union soldiers arrived in Galveston, Texas, and ensured that enslaved people there would be freed.

President Joe Biden on Thursday signed into law the Juneteenth National Independence Day Act, declaring a legal public holiday annually on June 19, the date of the end of slavery in the U.S. Read more»

History and Civics textbooks and curricula vary widely by state, and even by district. Mississippi is among the states seeking to ban the 1619 Project.

Americans argued over what to teach children about U.S. history since at least Reconstruction, the turbulent period that followed the Civil War, but as the nation has splintered along political and geographic lines, the fights have intensified and compounded the challenges facing social studies education. Read more»

Experts in critical race theory say it’s about acknowledging how racial disparities are embedded in U.S history and society, and the concept is being mischaracterized by conservatives.

From statehouses to Congress, Republicans have launched into a fight against the teaching of “critical race theory,” which just a year ago was a niche academic term. Read more»

More than two dozen Republican attorneys general, including Arizona AG Mark Brnovich, are voicing their disapproval over the Department of Education’s proposed priorities for teaching K-12 students about American history and civics education because they would include references to systemic racism and how the history of slavery has shaped the U.S. Read more»

The 1619 Project, launched in 2019 by The New York Times Magazine to mark the 400th anniversary of the arrival of the first African slaves to what later became the U.S., frames the enslavement of Africans and their descendants as a foundational event in the country’s history.

The Arizona Department of Education won’t act on a request from a Republican state lawmaker to take funding away from a Phoenix school district that serves low-income students because it adopted curriculum from “The 1619 Project,” which examines the legacy of slavery in the U.S. Read more»

The Sons of Confederate Veterans in this year's Tucson Rodeo Parade.

Robert J. Johnson, commander of the Arizona Division of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, wrote this guest opinion in response to the commentary about Confederate flags in the Tucson Rodeo Parade submitted last week by Councilwoman Lane Santa Cruz. Read more» 1

A Confederate flag, center, was flown last week by the honor guard at the front of the Tucson rodeo parade, along with a U.S. flag, and the flags of Arizona and Mexico and a variant of the 'castles and lions' Spanish royal standard.

The most familiar emblem of the Confederate army won't be allowed in the annual Tucson Rodeo Parade anymore, after a public outcry sparked by an op-ed by Councilwoman Lane Santa Cruz. But organizers said they won't eliminate another rebel banner from the color guard. Read more»

A Confederate flag, center, was flown last week by the honor guard at the front of the Tucson rodeo parade, along with a U.S. flag, and the flags of Arizona and Mexico and a variant of the 'castles and lions' Spanish royal standard.

"The Confederate flag is a symbol of slavery, oppression, and white supremacy. Yet, year after year, the Tucson Rodeo Parade Committee embraces the Sons of Confederate Veterans, and displays it with the color guard leading the parade." — Tucson Councilwoman Lane Santa Cruz Read more» 10

Beth Jacobs, founder of Willow Way, which works to help victims of human trafficking, told a panel in Washington that part of the problem is laws that makle little distinction between victims of trafficking – as she was – and the traffickers that prey on them.

For those who think slavery exists only in history books, Tucson resident Beth Jacobs has a message. “Trafficking does not discriminate. It will find you at home, at church, or on the Internet,” said Jacobs, who said she was forced into prostitution as a teenager. “It can find you anywhere.” Read more»

Christoph Waltz as Schultz and Jamie Foxx as Django in 'Django Unchained,' directed by Quentin Tarantino. The film centers on a slave trying to rescue his wife from a Mississippi plantation.

If it hadn’t have been for Spike Lee, I might have blissfully ignored "Django Unchained," the much-talked-about Quentin Tarantino movie about a revenge-minded slave set in pre-Civil War America. There's nothing like a race-based pop culture contretemps to provoke racial chatter. Read more»

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