Judge blocks Arizona from enforcing 'invidious' law against TUSD MAS classes
Order makes permanent August ruling that 2010 state statute violates 1st & 14th amendments
A federal judge has permanently blocked Arizona from enforcing a controversial 2010 law that targeted TUSD's ethnic studies classes. An August ruling found the law was unconstitutional, and "enacted and enforced with a discriminatory purpose" by state politicians, "motivated by a desire to advance a political agenda by capitalizing on race-based fears."
U.S. District Judge A. Wallace Tashima filed a final judgment in the case Wednesday, issuing a permanent injunction against enforcing the law against the Tucson Unified School District.
Decisions made by state officials under the law were "motivated by a desire to advance a political agenda by capitalizing on race-based fears," the judge ruled in August.
Wednesday, he wrote that the law was "enacted and enforced, not for a legitimate educational purpose for for (i) an invidious discriminatory racial purpose, and (ii) a politically partisan purpose — to shut down the TUSD MAS Program — in violation of the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution.
HB 2281, the state law championed by former Attorney General Tom Horne and former state school Superintendent John Huppenthal, barred ethnic studies courses in public schools, including TUDS's Mexican American Studies program.
The law has been embroiled in legal controversy since its passage, with the state threatening to withhold 10 percent of TUSD's state funding if the district did not eliminate the MAS classes.
Tashima, who held a bench trial on the claims that the law is unconstitutional last summer after the case was returned for review by the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in 2015, ruled in August that the statute violates the U.S. Constitution.
The judge said he was "convinced that A.R.S. § 15-112 was enacted and enforced with a discriminatory purpose."
Attorneys representing TUSD students had claimed that the law violated their 1st and 14th amendment rights, violating their rights of free speech and that it was passed in order to facilitate discrimination. The judge found in their favor.
Enactment of the law led to repeated protests by students in the ethnic studies program, however, in January of 2012, the TUSD board elected to axe ethnic studies when state education officials threatened to withhold up to $15 million in funding for TUSD unless the program was dropped.
"Huppenthal’s anonymous blog comments are the most important evidence, as they plainly show that he harbored animus," Tashima wrote in his decision.
".. the Court finds Horne and Huppenthal did not testify credibly regarding their own motivations. The passage and enforcement of the law against the MAS program were motivated by anti-Mexican-American attitudes," the judge wrote.
The "plaintiffs have proven their First Amendment claim by proving that no legitimate pedagogical objective motivated the enactment and enforcement of A.R.S. § 15-112 against the MAS program. First, defendants had no legitimate basis for believing that the MAS program was promoting racism such that eliminating it would reduce racism," the judge ruled.
"Huppenthal’s comments describing his 'eternal' 'war' against the MAS program, Ex. 104, expose his lack of interest in the welfare of TUSD students, who would be the focus of legitimate pedagogical concern if one existed," the judge ruled. "Those comments reveal instead a fixation on winning a political battle against a school district. Having thus ruled out any pedagogical motivation, the Court is convinced that decisions regarding the MAS program were motivated by a desire to advance a political agenda by capitalizing on race-based fears."