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Broadband adoption: Poverty stretches the digital divide

Online access by the numbers: Az ranks 16th

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Broadband subscribership in rural states, particularly in the West, increased at a rapid clip between 2008 and 2010 while the South has lagged behind the rest of the nation, according to government data analyzed by the Investigative Reporting Workshop.

Arizona was 16th on the list of connected states, with 63 percent of households going online via broadband in 2008. That's up from 55 percent in 2008. The Tucson metro area was 59th out of the top 100 cities in the nation, with 61 percent of households on broadband. The Phoenix metro area was 46th, with 64 percent in 2010.

Southern states like Mississippi, Alabama, Arkansas and Tennessee have abysmal subscription rates, according to the analysis.

While the No. 1 most-wired state is Hawaii, states in the relatively wealthy Northeast have the highest subscription rates — among them, Connecticut, New Jersey, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhode Island.

Lack of broadband means a profound disadvantage

Access to broadband has become critical for anyone to keep up in American society. Finding and applying for jobs often takes place entirely online. Students receive assignments via email. Basic government services are routinely offered online.

The lack of a broadband connection puts people at a profound disadvantage.

People without access, who are likely to be lower on the economic ladder, fall further and further behind, widening the "digital divide" between rich and poor.

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The Workshop used Federal Communications Commission data collected from broadband carriers through the end of 2010, the most recent data available. We added demographic information – like income, race and age – from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey, and created a map.

The map shows subscribership rates and demographic information at the Census tract level. That includes practically every neighborhood in the nation, or about 66,000 tracts. Each tract represents between 1,500 and 8,000 people.

"Broadband" is defined by how fast data streams to your computer.

An old-style dial-up connection streams at 56 kilobits per second, or Kbps. Today, speeds for home connections are more than 20 times that. The FCC defined broadband as 200 Kbps download (to your computer) or upload (sending data elsewhere). The national economic stimulus plan, which dedicated $7.2 billion in grants to assist broadband proliferation, uses a more strict definition of 768 Kbps download and 200 Kbps upload.

The Workshop used the more stringent definition for this analysis.

The best and the worst

Nationwide, the Workshop survey found that 40 percent of households did not have broadband connection in the home through December 2010. Among the states and the District of Columbia, Mississippi had the lowest rating, a 35 percent subscribership rate, according to the Workshop's statistical analysis of FCC data. Mississippi also is the poorest state in the nation, according to the U.S. Census Department's American Community Survey, with a median household income of $36,850.

The other lowest-subscribing states and their median incomes were:

  • Arkansas ranked 49th with a 43 percent subscribership rate. The state ranks 50th in median annual income, at $38,600.
  • Alabama ranked 48th in broadband with a 47 percent subscriber rate. It ranks 43nd in income, at $42,218.
  • Tennessee was 47th in broadband at 48 percent. It ranks 49th in income, at $40,026.
  • West Virginia was 46th in broadband at 49 percent. It ranks 48th in income, at $40,824.
  • Oklahoma was 45th in broadband at 50 percent. It ranks 38th in income at $45,577.

Wealthier states ranked near the top:

  • Hawaii is first in broadband at 74 percent, and 10th in income at $59,125.
  • Connecticut is second in broadband at 72 percent, and second in income at $65,958.
  • New Jersey is third in broadband at 72 percent, and third in income at $65,173.
  • Massachusetts is fourth in broadband at 70 percent, and seventh in income at $60,923.
  • New Hampshire is fifth in broadband at 70 percent, and first in income at $66,303.

Broadband in Tucson

Click for a closer look at an interactive map.

Arizona was 16th on the list of connected states, with 63 percent of households going online via broadband in 2008. That's up from 55 percent in 2008. The Tucson metro area was 59th out of the top 100 cities in the nation, with 61 percent of households on broadband. The Phoenix metro area was 46th, with 64 percent in 2010.

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Predictably, the more affluent East Side and Foothills have higher broadband penetration, with many areas having more than 80 percent of households on high-speed Internet connections.

Not indicated on the map, because the survey counted households rather than consumer connections, is the number of broadband connections at the University of Arizona.

One of the areas with the least number of residential connections is the City of South Tucson, with fewer than 20 percent of households having broadband connections.

— Dylan Smith/TucsonSentinel.com

While Mississippi's home subscribership rate is dismal, residents still find a way to get online, according to Roberto Gallardo of the Southern Rural Development Center at Mississippi State University. In a survey of more than 2,000 households, nearly 79 percent said someone in the home had used the Internet.

The usage rate "was a lot higher than we expected," he said, but it included people who accessed the net at any outside location, including school, work and the local library.

Reasons people give for not subscribing are similar to those given in national surveys he said – cost, lack of equipment, and a lack of understanding of its value, which is key.

"We need to increase exposure to the needs of the Internet," he said. For example, people on Social Security, who are less likely to subscribe, may learn the value of being online, and how to get online, from their children and grandchildren.

"The research shows out there if you increase broadband awareness, then that's the first step for non-adopters to make the jump," he said. "They need to have a motive to do this."

Most and least improved

From December 2008 to December 2010, broadband subscribership rates increased by an average of 6.1 percentage points per state, according to the FCC data. Some states improved a lot, some a little and two actually slipped.

The largest improvement was seen in Vermont, which jumped 17 percentage points to 60 percent.

Rural areas have historically suffered from lower broadband subscription rates. There's less money to be made with lower population densities, and it costs more to run wires to those areas. But according to the Workshop analysis, some of the most rural states seem to be improving quickly.

Alaska, the least densely populated state in the nation, according to Census Bureau estimates for July 2011, jumped 15 percentage points to a subscribership rate of 53 percent. Montana, ranked 48th in population density, jumped 14 percentage points to 55 percent. South Dakota, 46th in density, jumped 11.1 percentage points to 61 percent.

Two states did worse. Maine dropped 2 percentage points to 57 percent. South Carolina dropped a half a point to 53 percent.

Meanwhile, Louisiana, North Carolina and Nevada edged up a point, and Ohio edged up only two points.

The South has shown only modest improvement.

Comparing broadband subscription rates in one city to another is a tricky business. An area may show an overall high rating but still have pockets of low usage. The differences within the same metro area can be dramatic.

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For example, the sprawling Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, Conn., metropolitan statistical area is the most connected of the top 100 MSAs in our survey, coming in at a 79 percent subscription rate. This isn't surprising, given it ranks third in the nation in median household income.

But that's only part of the story.

The poverty divide

The Bridgeport MSA also ranks No. 1 when it comes to the unequal distribution of wealth, according to a Stanford University study that looked at income segregation in American cities.

That gap is reflected in the broadband map. The urban core of the city suffers from biting poverty and low rates of broadband subscribership, while the outer suburbs show sky-high incomes and correspondingly high rates of broadband subscribership.

Wealthier households subscribe at a rate of 80 percent to 100 percent, while low-income areas of the city, some exceeding a 50 percent poverty rate, subscribe at a rate of 40 percent to 60 percent.

The metro area with the lowest score was McAllen, Texas, five miles from the Mexican border in the Rio Grande Valley, with a score of 37.

In McAllen, the library is often where people go to connect.

"Our computer lab and free Internet services are probably the largest draw into the building, said Jose A. Gamez, director of McAllen's public libraries. "We're adding about 50 more computers because of the demand."

The low home-subscription rate in the city is no mystery.

"Hidalgo County is one of poorest counties in the country so a lot of people here just can't afford their own computers or the broadband connection," he said. In fact, McAllen possesses the highest poverty rate in the nation, according to the Census.

Every major survey has shown that the lower the income, the less likely it is that households will subscribe to the Internet.

In February 2011, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration released a survey that said 68 percent of households had a broadband connection, far more than what the Workshop analysis shows.

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The survey showed those whose family income is $15,000 or less adopted broadband at a 32 percent rate while those whose families earn $150,000 or more adopt at a nearly 90 percent rate.

Why people don't connect

When the NTIA asked those who did not subscribe to explain, 46 percent said "don't need/not interested;" 25 percent said it was too expensive; and 14 percent said it was because they didn't have a computer.

The question of non-adoption, then, seems a little more complex than simple income.

The FCC commissioned the Social Science Research Council to study why people do not adopt. They interviewed 170 non-subscribers and learned that the "not interested" answer did not come up.

"We found no evidence of that," said Joe Karaganis, one of the study's authors. The reason was in part because of survey methods, he said. "We think that's an almost entirely fictional category at this point," he said.

In the end, the study "validated the obvious" — cost is the main reason people don't adopt. But it's a more complicated issue than just monthly connection charges, he said. There are unexpected costs.

"We just found lots of ways in which the $40 dollar a month charge is just the beginning of the costs of broadband access," he said – like taxes, special features and other fees.

But it's more than just cost. There are cultural issues. The more educated you are, the more likely you are to subscribe. Whites subscribe at higher rates than blacks and Hispanics. And senior citizens subscribe at lower rates than young people.

Wireless to the rescue?

While broadband subscribership rate in homes seems to have flattened, the popularity of smart phones has skyrocketed. In the Workshop survey, non-home-based wireless connections were not included.

Thirty-five percent of American adults owned "smart phones," as of July of last year, basically a cell phone that can be used to access the Internet, according to a Pew Research Center survey. Two-thirds of them accessed the Internet or email on their handheld on a typical day.

There is no question that today's "fourth generation" wireless networks are capable of delivering data at much greater speeds than in the past. But a smartphone is no substitute for a home computer with a wire-line connection, at least not today.

Speed aside, wireless companies often impose data limits — the more you use them to go online, the more you pay. And data streams are subject to "throttling" or cutting back on usage when networks are particularly busy, even under unlimited data plans.

In addition, there are far more tasks that can be performed on a laptop or a PC than on a smartphone. In short, surfing the Internet on a handheld is not like doing it at home — or on a laptop at a McDonald's, for that matter.

That fact is reflected in the survey in which only 25 percent of smartphone owners say they go online "mostly" using their handheld devices.

Smartphone owners under age 30, non-whites and users with relatively low income and education levels are "particularly likely" to say that they "mostly go online" using their phones.

What's the solution?

President Barack Obama made Internet access a part of his platform when he was elected in 2008.

He directed $7.2 billion of his economic stimulus plan funding to broadband projects. Most of it went to infrastructure – deploying broadband networks in areas that have no access. That's great for rural areas, not so great for low-income areas that have access but can't afford it.

Some of the money — $251 million — did go to grants to "promote broadband adoption" among vulnerable populations. A total of $201 million went to grants for funding public computer centers.

But not as much attention has been paid to closing the gap between rich and poor. The highest-profile effort to date has been touted by the FCC, but is, in fact, a voluntary effort by the industry.

The "Connect to Compete" project provides $9.95 per month cable broadband access for families who have a child enrolled in the free school lunch program, have not have subscribed in the previous 90 days and do not owe the provider for unpaid bills or un-returned equipment. Cable companies say that if all eligible families take advantage, that's $2.5 billion worth of broadband service.

The program also involves other private companies as well as nonprofits to coordinate the program. It includes the offer of a $150 refurbished computer for those without one.

Organizers hope to launch the project in late August or early September. While the effort is ambitious, it is unlikely to represent a long-term solution. The $9.95 per month offer is good for two years.

Feel-good fix?

Consumer advocates are supportive, but less than hopeful.

"We do think it's a good idea for companies to offer low-cost broadband," said Craig Aaron, president of Free Press, which is usually at odds with the big broadband providers. "But having a company offer low-cost broadband is not the same thing as having a broadband policy."

The FCC released a lengthy national broadband plan, ordered by Congress, in 2010. It followed an exhaustive effort and was filled with policy recommendations. FCC spokesman Mark Wigfield released an agency statement saying that the FCC has taken "numerous steps" to increase broadband adoption, including the "Connect to Compete" program.

The agency has also reformed its "Lifeline" program for low-income phone subscribers to include a pilot project to test ways that phone subsidies can be used to increase broadband adoption.

In addition, the controversial Comcast-NBC Universal merger required the cable company to make high-speed Internet access available to 2.5 million low-income households at $10 a month, along with low-cost personal computers and digital literacy training.

Aaron said the real root of the problem is too few players in the marketplace. He said the FCC needs to be dealing with "the incredible lack of competition when it comes to broadband — something they frankly haven't been doing."

Note: This updates an earlier version of the story that said the FCC’s definition of broadband is 200 Kbps upload or download. The agency changed its definition to 4 Mbps download and 1 Mbps upload in 2010.

Workshop reporter Michael Lawson contributed to this report.

Co-author John Dunbar is the former director of Connected, The Workshop’s Media and Broadband Project. He is now at the Center for Public Integrity, which is co-publishing this project, as managing editor for politics and finance.

Co-author Jacob Fenton, former Workshop director of computer-assisted reporting, collected and analyzed the data for this report. He is now at the Sunlight Foundation.

This project was made possible in part by funding from the Ford Foundation.


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Multnomah County Library/Flickr

Library patrons in Portland use public Internet stations to get online.

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Broadband rate by state

State Rate 12/08Rate 6/09 Rate 12/09 Rate 6/10 Rate 12/10
Hawaii* 67 68 72 72 74
Connecticut 69 71 72 73 72
New Jersey 65 69 69 71 72
Massachusetts 66 68 68 71 70
New Hampshire 66 67 69 71 70
Rhode Island 63 65 66 67 67
Maryland 59 63 64 65 66
Colorado 60 63 63 64 66
Delaware 62 64 64 66 66
New York 62 62 63 64 65
California 59 61 62 63 65
Florida 58 60 62 64 65
Washington 55 61 61 60 65
Utah 57 58 61 62 64
North Dakota 54 58 60 61 63
Arizona 55 57 59 59 63
District of Columbia 56 60 59 61 62
Pennsylvania 53 57 59 60 62
Minnesota 54 56 58 60 62
Oregon 54 58 58 56 62
South Dakota 50 52 54 53 61
Virginia 54 57 58 60 61
Vermont 44 52 55 59 60
Wisconsin 54 53 56 57 60
Illinois 56 58 58 57 59
Nebraska 52 53 55 55 59
Kansas 53 54 56 57 58
Nevada 57 57 57 57 58
North Carolina 56 54 55 56 57
Maine 59 52 54 55 57
Michigan 50 53 55 56 57
Ohio 55 53 54 54 57
Wyoming 48 54 53 55 57
Georgia 52 54 53 52 56
Montana 41 44 50 53 55
Indiana 47 50 50 49 54
Iowa 47 51 53 55 53
Idaho 47 49 50 51 53
Texas 48 49 52 53 53
South Carolina 53 49 50 52 53
Alaska 38 42 46 50 53
New Mexico 44 48 48 52 53
Missouri 46 47 50 50 52
Louisiana 50 52 52 53 51
Kentucky 44 46 47 49 50
Oklahoma 46 47 48 48 50
West Virginia 39 43 46 45 49
Tennessee 44 46 46 48 48
Alabama 42 44 45 46 47
Arkansas 38 39 41 42 43
Mississippi 35 37 38 39 38

* The high number of vacation homes in Hawaii may make this estimate higher than the 'real' figure. Estimates are of the number of fixed residential broadband connections per 100 households For more details, read the methodology.

Broadband rate, 100 largest U.S. metro areas

Metro Area Pop. 7/09(thousands) Rate 12/08 Rate 6/09 Rate 12/09 Rate 6/10 Rate 12/10
Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT 901 75 77 77 78 79
Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown, NY 677 64 74 73 75 76
Honolulu, HI 908 68 69 72 72 74
Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL 536 68 66 70 72 73
San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA 3054 71 72 71 71 72
San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA 1840 68 69 70 70 72
Colorado Springs, CO 626 63 69 68 71 72
Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA-NH 4589 68 71 70 72 72
Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT 1196 68 69 69 71 71
Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA 803 65 68 68 69 71
San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA 4318 69 71 69 68 71
Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV 5476 67 70 69 71 71
Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL 587 61 59 68 67 71
Syracuse, NY 646 73 65 67 68 70
New Haven-Milford, CT 848 65 68 69 69 70
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC 1674 62 65 66 68 69
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL 2082 66 66 67 68 69
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL 2747 62 63 66 68 69
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA 3408 59 66 65 63 69
Worcester, MA 804 62 65 66 68 69
Portland-South Portland-Biddeford, ME 517 71 63 63 63 68
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI 3270 61 64 65 66 68
Ogden-Clearfield, UT 542 62 63 65 66 68
Denver-Aurora-Broomfield, CO 2552 62 65 64 66 68
Rochester, NY 1036 73 62 66 66 68
Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA 537 58 63 64 66 68
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY 858 81 64 65 66 67
New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA 19070 62 66 65 67 67
Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA 2242 61 65 63 58 67
Pittsburgh, PA 2355 57 61 63 65 67
Salt Lake City, UT 1130 60 60 64 65 67
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA 12875 59 62 63 65 66
Raleigh-Cary, NC 1126 70 65 64 66 66
Providence-New Bedford-Fall River, RI-MA 1601 62 64 65 67 66
Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD 5968 62 65 64 65 66
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ 816 58 59 61 63 66
Madison, WI 570 61 62 63 60 65
Springfield, MA 699 55 58 60 65 65
Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL 583 53 57 62 63 65
Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA 850 61 62 63 63 65
Baltimore-Towson, MD 2691 58 62 63 64 65
Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI 1560 64 63 62 63 65
Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos, TX 1705 67 64 64 63 64
Des Moines-West Des Moines, IA 563 57 61 62 64 64
Charleston-North Charleston-Summerville, SC 659 64 62 63 63 64
Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale 4364 59 58 60 60 64
Columbus, OH 1802 66 62 61 61 64
Cincinnati-Middletown, OH-KY-IN 2172 63 61 61 62 63
Akron, OH 700 65 60 61 62 63
Chicago-Joliet-Naperville, IL-IN-WI 9581 60 62 61 61 63
Sacramento--Arden-Arcade--Roseville, CA 2127 58 60 59 61 63
Indianapolis-Carmel, IN 1744 57 60 60 60 62
Detroit-Warren-Livonia, MI 4403 57 60 61 61 62
Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor, OH 2091 58 57 59 59 62
Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC 1746 60 59 59 60 61
Lancaster, PA 508 51 55 51 53 61
Jacksonville, FL 1328 55 58 59 61 61
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY 1124 57 57 59 60 61
Tucson 1020 57 57 56 57 61
Provo-Orem, UT 556 54 58 59 58 61
Albuquerque, NM 858 53 57 57 59 60
Oklahoma City, OK 1227 56 57 57 58 60
Baton Rouge, LA 787 57 59 61 61 60
Wichita, KS 613 58 58 59 59 60
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL 5547 55 56 56 59 60
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA 4143 51 54 57 58 60
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA 5475 56 59 58 57 60
Boise City-Nampa, ID 606 54 55 57 59 59
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 6448 57 59 58 58 59
Las Vegas-Paradise, NV 1903 58 58 58 58 59
St. Louis, MO-IL 2829 55 56 58 57 59
Richmond, VA 1238 51 54 56 58 59
Kansas City, MO-KS 2068 58 58 57 58 59
New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner, LA 1190 60 62 58 59 59
Greensboro-High Point, NC 715 58 52 53 56 58
Dayton, OH 835 57 54 56 55 58
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA 563 52 51 55 56 57
Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX 5867 55 57 58 57 57
Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin, TN 1582 54 57 55 57 57
Scranton--Wilkes-Barre, PA 549 42 45 50 54 57
Tulsa, OK 929 52 54 54 53 56
Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC 539 53 57 56 56 56
Stockton, CA 675 48 50 52 54 55
Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN 1259 51 53 54 54 55
Columbia, SC 745 66 51 50 53 55
Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR 685 52 54 54 54 55
Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI 778 47 52 53 54 55
San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX 2072 23 25 54 54 55
Chattanooga, TN-GA 524 45 52 48 53 54
Modesto, CA 510 48 50 52 53 54
Knoxville, TN 699 51 53 54 55 54
El Paso, TX 751 47 47 50 52 54
Bakersfield-Delano, CA 807 46 48 50 52 53
Greenville-Mauldin-Easley, SC 640 48 52 51 54 52
Fresno, CA 915 46 47 48 50 51
Birmingham-Hoover, AL 1131 48 50 50 49 50
Jackson, MS 541 45 49 50 51 49
Memphis, TN-MS-AR 1305 44 47 48 50 48
Toledo, OH 672 38 40 40 39 43
McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX 741 32 33 36 35 36

Sources: Workshop analysis of FCC data; populations are from U.S. Census.

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